Blood Tests Reference Ranges -High and Low Values

Blood test

Range

Complications

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT)

Male 10-55 U/liter. Female10-55 U/liter

Levels are extremely increased in cases of liver cell necrosis of any cause, right heart failure, acute anoxia, extensive trauma, or left heart failure. A slightly high level may indicate cirrhosis, obstructive jaundice, liver tumors, extensive myocardial infarction, myositis, muscular dystrophy, fatty liver, chronic alcohol abuse, or severe pancreatitis. Levels will by low in cases of pyridoxal phosphate deficiency

Albumin

3.1-4.3 g/dl

There is no naturally occurring hyperalbuminemia. Any condition that results in the decrease of plasma water will increase the concentration of all plasma proteins, including albumin. Low concentrations of blood albumin may be due to acute and chronic inflammation, decreased synthesis by the liver, increased loss via body surfaces, increased catabolism, or increased blood volume. *albumin is the principal oncotically active component of plasma. As the major plasma protein, albumin acts as a nitrogen pool. Its role in transporting bilirubin, bile acids, metal ions, and drugs will be markedly affected by variations in concentrations.

Alkaline phosphatase (adult)

Male 45-115 U/liter. Female 30-100 U/liter

Origins of the major phosphatases are liver, bone, intestine, endometrium, and lung. Ingestion of a meal increases the intestinal isoenzyme of alp in serum, especially in individuals who are blood type o or b and who are Lewis-positive secretors. Increased levels of alp may indicate increased bone metabolism (during healing of fracture, primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, or juvenile rickets). May also indicate bone disease, renal disease, or liver disease. Low levels may indicate hypothyroidism, scurvy, gross anemia, vitamin b12 deficiency or nutritional deficiency of zinc or magnesium.

Androstenedione (adult)

50-250 ng/dl

Androstenedione is a major precursor in the biosynthesis of androgens and estrogens. It is produced in adrenals and gonads and serves as prohormone for testosterone and estrone. The test is useful in conjunction with other tests in the evaluation and management of androgen disorders

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT)

Male 10-40 U/liter. Female 9-25 U/liter

Increased levels may indicate liver cell necrosis or injury of any cause, including cholestatic and obstructive jaundice, chronic hepatitis, or drug-induced injury to liver. May also be associated with hepatic metastases and hepatoma, necrosis or trauma to heart or skeletal muscle, inflammatory disease of heart or skeletal muscle, heart failure, Forbes’s disease, heat stroke, hypothyroidism, intestinal obstruction, lactate acidosis, or toxic shock syndrome. Also distinguishes neonatal hepatitis from biliary atresia.

Bilirubin, direct

0.0-0.4 mg/dl

High serum blood levels are associated with intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree obstruction, hepatocellular damage, cholestasis, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, or rotor’s syndrome.

Bilirubin, total

0.0-1.0 mg/dl

High serum levels may indicate hepatocellular damage (inflammatory, toxic, neoplastic), intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree obstruction, hemolytic diseases, fructose intolerance, hypothyroidism or neonatal physiological jaundice

Calcium

8.5-10.5 mg/dl

High blood calcium levels may indicate primary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism, malignant disease with bone involvement (in particular metastatic carcinoma of the breast, lung, kidney, multiple myeloma, lymphomas, and leukemia), vitamin d intoxication, milk-alkali syndrome, Paget’s disease with immobilization, thyrotoxicosis, acromegaly, diuretic phase of acute tubular necrosis or dehydration. Low levels of calcium may indicate hypoparathyroidism; vitamin d deficiency, chronic renal failure, magnesium deficiency, prolonged anticonvulsant therapy, acute pancreatitis, anterior pituitary hypofunction, hypoalbuminemia, or inadequate nutrition.

Carbon dioxide content, total

24-30 mmol/liter

High levels may indicate respiratory acidosis caused by poor gas exchange or depression of respiratory center; generalized respiratory disease; metabolic acidosis (after severe vomiting in pyloric stenosis, hypokalemic states, or excessive alkali intake). Low levels may indicate compensated respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis in diabetes mellitus, renal glomerular or tubular failure, renal tubular acidosis and intestinal loss of alkali with coexisting increase in c1 and normal anion gap

Chloride

100-108 mmol/liter

High chloride levels may be attributed to dehydration, renal tubular acidosis, acute renal failure, diabetes insipidus, metabolic acidosis associated with prolonged diarrhea with loss of nahco3, respiratory alkalosis, and some cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. Low serum chloride levels may be due to excessive sweating, prolonged vomiting from any cause or gastric suction, persistent gastric secretion, salt-losing nephritis, aldosteronism, potassium depletion associated with alkalosis, respiratory acidosis

Cholesterol

Desirable < 200 mg / dl. Borderline high 200-239 mg/dl. High > 239 mg/dl

High total cholesterol levels may indicate familial or polygenic hyperlipoproteinemia types IIa and IIb, hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia's secondary to hepatocellular disease, intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis, chronic renal failure, malignant neoplasms of pancreas and prostate, hypothyroidism, gout, ischemic heart disease, pregnancy, diabetes, alcoholism, an albuminemia, dysglobulinemia, anorexia nervosa, idiopathic hypercalcemia, acute intermittent porphyria, or isolated hGH deficiency. Low levels may be associated with lipoprotein deficiency, hepatocellular necrosis, malignant neoplasm of liver, hyperthyroidism, malabsorption, malnutrition, megaloblastic anemias, chronic obstructive lung disease, mental retardation, rheumatoid arthritis, or intestinal lymphangiectasia. *secondary disorders that elevate cholesterol levels should be ruled out prior to initiating therapy with cholesterol-lowering drugs. *factors that have variable effects on cholesterol levels in different people include posture before and at time of blood sampling, a recent meal, emotional stress, and menstrual cycle.

Creatinine

0.6-1.5 mg/dl

High serum or plasma levels may indicate renal function impairment, both acute and chronic; active acromegaly and gigantism, hyperthyroidism, and meat meals. Creatine supplements can increase creatinine. It is always good to calculate your eGFR to make sure it is not under 60

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate (adult)

Male 10-619 µg/dl. Female
Premenopausal 12-535 µg/dl. Female Postmenopausal 30-260 µg/dl

Decreased levels may be associated with increased age in men and women, hyperlipidemia, psychosis, or psoriasis. Weakly androgenic

Estradiol (ultra sensitive)

Female Menstruating
Follicular phase 50-145 pg/ml Midcycle peak 112-443 pg/ml Luteal phase50-241 pg/ml
Postmenopausal <59 pg / ml
Male < 50 pg / ml

Estradiol is the most active of endogenous estrogens. The test is of value, together with gonadotropins, in evaluating menstrual and fertility problems in adult females. Measurement is also useful in the evaluation of gynecomastia or feminization states due to estrogen or producing tumors.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Female Menstruating
Follicular phase 3.0-20.0 U/liter Ovulatory phase9.0-26.0 U/liter Luteal phase 1.0-12.0 U/liter
Postmenopausal 18.0-153.0 U/liter Male 1.0-12.0 U/liter

In hypogonadism, FSH and LH levels lower than normal for the patient’s age indicate hypothalamic or pituitary problems; higher levels indicate a primary gonadal defect

Globulin

2.6-4.1 g/dl

High levels may be associated with chronic hepatitis, plasma cell dyscrasias/ lymphoproliferative disorders, cirrhosis, chronic liver diseases, chronic infections or certain autoimmune disorders. Low levels may indicate immune deficiency or suppression or lymphoproliferative disorder. Decreases in all fractions may be seen in bulk loss of proteins into the gut.

Glucose, fasting

70-110 mg/dl

Serum glucose levels may be high due to diabetes mellitus, strenuous exercise, increased epinephrine, pancreatic disease or an endocrine disorder. A high serum level may also be related to acute myocardial infarction or severe angina, chronic liver disease, or chronic renal disease.

(gamma)-Glutamyl transferase (GGT)

Male 1-94 U/liter
Female 1-70 U/liter

Very high levels can be associated with obstructive liver disease and post hepatic obstruction. Moderately high levels may indicate liver disease (inflammation, cirrhosis, space-occupying lesions), infectious mononucleosis, renal transplant, hyperthyroidism, myotonic dystrophy, diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, or alcohol-induced liver disease. Low GGT levels will indicate hypothyroidism. *useful marker for pancreatic cancer, prostatic cancer, and hepatoma because levels reflect remission and recurrence.

Growth hormone (resting)

2-5 ng/ml

Secretion of GH is episodic and pulsatile; highest values occur during periods of deepest sleep. Ability to secrete GH in response to a conventional challenge declines with age. Random levels of GH provide little diagnostic information; GH secretion is best assessed during tests that stimulate or suppress release. Patients with GH-producing pituitary disorders often release GH in response to TRH or GnRH; and patients with suspected GH deficiencies have subnormal responses to stimulation tests (i.e. GH stimulation test after arginine, insulin, L-dopa, glucagon, propranolol and insulin tolerance test.)

Hemoglobin A1C

3.8-6.4%

Glycated hemoglobin concentration appears to reflect the mean blood glucose concentration over the previous 4-8 wks. This test, while not useful for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, has been shown to be useful in monitoring its long-term control. Glycated hemoglobins are increased as a reflection of hyperglycemia during the lifespan of erythrocytes

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as major risk factor

Males above 40 mg/dl
Females above 50 mg/dl

Epidemiological studies demonstrate the inverse association between HDL-c levels and the incidence and prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD). It is suggested that for every 5 mg/dl decrease in HDL-c below the mean, the risk of CHD increases 25%. Another approach in assessing CHD risk is to calculate the ratio of HDL-c to either LDL-c or total cholesterol. The following primary disease states can lead to secondary decrease in HDL-c: uncontrolled diabetes, premature coronary heart disease, hepatocellular disorders, cholestasis, nephrotic syndrome, and chronic renal failure.

Insulin

2-20 U/ml

Decreased serum levels indicate inadequately treated type I diabetes mellitus. High serum levels may indicate insulin overdose, insulin resistance syndromes, or endogenous hyperinsulinemia

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)

110-210 U/liter

Extremely high levels may indicate megaloblastic and pernicious anemia, extensive carcinomatosis, viral hepatitis, shock, hypoxia or extreme hyperthermia. Very high levels are associated with cirrhosis, obstructive jaundice, renal diseases, neoplastic diseases, skeletomuscular diseases, or congestive heart failure. Mildly high levels are associated with any cellular injury that results in loss of cytoplasm, myocardial or pulmonary infarction, leukemias, hemolytic anemias, hepatitis (nonviral), sickle cell disease, lymphoma, renal infarction, or acute pancreatitis.

Lipoprotein(a) Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

0-30 mg/dl. Desirable < 130 mg/ dl, Borderline high risk 130-159 mg/dl
High risk greater than or equal to 160 mg/dl

LDL encompasses all of the lipoproteins with density greater than 1.006 kg/l and less than or equal to 1.063 kg/l. High levels may indicate primary hyperlipoproteinemia types IIa and IIb; tendon and tuberous xanthomas, corneal arcus, and premature coronary heart disease. The following diseases can lead to secondary elevation of LDL-c: hyperlipoproteinemia secondary to hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, hepatic obstruction, hepatic disease, pregnancy, anorexia nervosa, diabetes, chronic renal failure, and Cushing’s syndrome.

Iron

45-180 ug/dL

High serum levels may indicate pernicious, aplastic, and hemolytic anemias; hemochromatosis, acute leukemia, lead poisoning, acute hepatitis, vitamin b6 deficiency, excessive iron supplementation/therapy, repeated transfusions, or nephritis. Low serum iron levels may indicate iron-deficiency anemia, remission of acute and chronic infection, carcinoma, nephrosis, hypothyroidism, or postoperative state. *symptoms of iron poisoning include abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, cyanosis, lethargy, and convulsions. Levels may vary widely for an individual within the same day or from day to day.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Female Menstruating
Follicular phase 2.0-15.0
Ovulatory phase 22-105
Luteal phase 0.6-19
Postmenopausal 16-64
Male 2.0-12.0

Test used to determine the preovulatory LH surge; also provides an integrated picture of LH secretion throughout the day. Shows pituitary or hypothalamic impairment or overproduction

Magnesium

1.4-2.0 meq/liter

Magnesium plays a vital role in glucose metabolism by facilitating the formation of muscle and liver glycogen from blood-borne glucose. Also participates as a cofactor in the breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids during energy metabolism. High serum levels may indicate dehydration, renal insufficiency, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, adrenocortical insufficiency, Addison’s disease, hypothyroidism or lupus erythematosus. Phytate, fatty acids, and an excess of phosphate impair mg absorption. Symptoms of deficiency usually do not occur until serum levels are above 1 meq / liter

Phosphorus, inorganic (adult)

2.6-4.5 mg/dl

Serum phosphorus concentrations have a circadian rhythm (highest level in late morning, lowest in evening) and are subject to rapid change secondary to environmental factors such as diet (carbohydrate), phosphate-binding antacids, and fluctuations in growth hormone, insulin, and renal function. High levels may indicate osteolytic metastatic bone tumors, myelogenous leukemia, milk-alkali syndrome, vitamin d intoxication, healing fractures, renal failure, hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, diabetes mellitus with ketosis, acromegaly, portal cirrhosis, pulmonary embolism, lactic acidosis or respiratory acidosis.

Potassium

3.4-4.8 mmol/liter

High potassium levels are associated with reduced renal excretion of potassium or redistribution of potassium in the body (i.e. Massive hemolysis, severe tissue damage, severe acute starvation-anorexia nervosa, hyperkinetic activity, malignant hyperpyrexia following anesthesia, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and dehydration).

Progesterone

Female
Follicular phase > 1 ng / ml
Midluteal phase 3-20 ng/ml
Male < 1 ng / ml

The diagnostic value of this test lies in its detection of ovulation and in the evaluation of the function of the corpus luteum. Serial sampling during the menstrual cycle is required. During menopause, levels drop to 0

Prolactin

Female
Premenopausal 0-20 ng/ml
Postmenopausal 0-15 ng/ml
Male 0-15 ng/ml

May help assess Prolactin reserve and abnormal Prolactin secretion by the pituitary. May indicate pituitary tumors.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

Female 0
Male less than 40 years of age 0.0-2.0 ng/ml
greater than or equal to 40 yr. old 0.0-4.0 ng/ml

PSA is prostate-tissue specific, not prostate-cancer specific. Used for early detection of the recurrence of prostatic cancer. The test is of great value as a marker in the follow-up of patients at high risk for disease progression. PSA values increase with age.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Free

Males 45-75 yr. old, with PSA values between 4 and 20 ng/ml. Above 25% associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia

PSA is prostate-tissue specific, not prostate-cancer specific. Used for early detection of the recurrence of prostatic cancer. The test is of great value as a marker in the follow-up of patients at high risk for disease progression. PSA values increase with age.

Protein, total

6.0-8.0 g/dl

High blood levels may be associated with anabolic steroid use, androgens, corticosteroids, corticotrophin, epinephrine, insulin, progesterone, or thyroid preparations. Severe protein deficiency, chronic liver disease, malabsorption syndrome, and malnutrition may also lead to abnormal levels. Serum total protein decreases in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Sodium

135-145 mmol/liter

High serum levels are associated with water loss in excess of salt through skin, lungs, GI tract, and kidneys. Also may indicate increased renal sodium conservation in hyperaldosteronism, Cushing’s syndrome or disease, inadequate water intake because of inadequate thirst mechanism, dehydration, or excessive saline therapy. Low sodium levels may indicate low sodium intake, sodium losses due to vomiting, diarrhea, excessive sweating with adequate water intake and inadequate salt replacement, diuretics abuse, or salt-losing nephropathy

Somatomedin C (Insulin-like growth factor I)

16-24 yr. 182-780 ng/ml
25-39 yr. 114-492 ng/ml
40-54 yr. 90-360 ng/ml
> 54 yr. 71-290 ng/ml


Blood concentrations of IGF-1 are constant during the day and after eating. In acromegaly, the test may serve as an indicator of the severity of the disease; serial determinations may be used to monitor efficacy of treatment. In dwarfism IGF-1 may be used to determine the response to GH therapy. Concentrations of IGF-1 rise during the first year of life, reaching the highest values in preadolescent or early adolescent years. Normal values tend to decline progressively until age 50

Testosterone, total (morning sample)

Female 6-86 ng/dl
Male 270-1070 ng/dl

This test is a measure of total circulating testosterone, both protein bound and free. In adult men, serum levels peak in the early morning, decreasing 25% to the evening minimum. Levels increase after exercise and decrease after immobilization and after glucose load. Progressive decreases begin after age 50

Testosterone, unbound (morning sample)

Male 20-40 yr. 15.0-40.0 pg/ml
41-60 yr. 13.0-35.0 pg/ml
61-80 yr. 12.0-28.0 pg/ml Female 20-40 yr., 0.6-3.1 pg/ml
41-60 yr. 0.4-2.5 pg/ml
61-80 yr. 0.2-2.0 pg/ml

Free (nonprotein-bound) testosterone is independent of changes in concentrations of the principal testosterone transport protein, sex hormone-binding globulin.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

0.5-5.0 U/ml

First-line test for hyper- and hypothyroidism. Test is considered by some to be the preferred screening test for evaluation of thyrometabolic states. Moderately high TSH is often found in euthyroid patients during treatment of hyperthyroidism

Thyroxine, total (T4)

4.5-10.9 g/dl

Used in conjunction with other tests to measure thyroid function. T4 testing is frequently used when TSH levels are abnormally high or low. In hypothyroidism, total serum t4 falls before t3. High serum levels may represent hyperthyroidism.

Transferrin

191-365 mg/dl

Transferrin is the major plasma transport protein for iron. High serum levels may indicate iron deficiency (high levels often precede the appearance of anemia by days to months). Serum ferritin levels fall with iron deficiency and with generalized malnutrition but remain normal in the presence of inflammation and iron deficiency

Triglycerides (fasting)

40-150 mg/dl

Increased triglyceride levels indicate hyperlipoproteinemia types I, IIb, III, IV, and V due to familial or sporadic endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. The following primary disease states or conditions can lead to secondary elevation of triglycerides: obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, viral hepatitis, alcoholism, alcoholic cirrhosis, biliary cirrhosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal failure, essential hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebral thrombosis, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, gout, pregnancy, glycogen storage diseases types I, II, III, and IV, down syndrome, respiratory distress syndrome, Werner’s syndrome, anorexia nervosa, or idiopathic hypercalcemia. Low levels of triglycerides may indicate chronic obstructive lung disease, brain infarction, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, lactosuria, malnutrition, malabsorption syndrome, intestinal lymphangiectasia or end-stage parenchymal liver disease.

Triiodothyronine, total (T3)

60-181 ng/dl

Used in conjunction with other tests to measure thyroid function. High serum levels may indicate hyperthyroidism while low levels may indicate hypothyroidism. At least 80% of circulating T3 is derived from monodeiodination of T4 in peripheral tissues. Free T3 and free T4 can also be of great value in thyroid work-ups. T3 is 4 to 5 times more potent in biological systems than T4.

Urea nitrogen (BUN) (adult)

8-25 mg/dl

High serum blood levels may indicate impaired kidney function associated with an increase with age or protein content of diet.

Uric acid

Male 3.6-8.5 mg/dl
Female 2.3-6.6 mg/dl

High serum levels may indicate gout, renal failure, leukemia, lymphoma, psoriasis, polycythemia, multiple myeloma, kidney disease, and or chronic lead nephropathy. Associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hypoparathyroidism, acromegaly, and liver disease.

Differential blood count

Neutrophils 45-75%
Bands 0-5%
Lymphocytes 16-46%
Monocytes 4-11%
Eosinophils 0-8%
Basophils 0-3%

Neutrophils a white blood cell.
Bands: increase in band neutrophils means the bone marrow has been signaled to release white blood cells
Lymphocytes a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell), occurring especially in the lymphatic system.
Monocytes a large phagocytic white blood cell
Eosinophils a white blood cell containing granules
Basophils a basophilic white blood cell.

Erythrocyte count

Male 4.50-5.30 X 106/mm3
Female 4.10-5.10 X 106/mm3

Red Blood Cell count. Low Values may mean blood loss, hemorrhage, bone marrow failure deficiencies in iron, folate vitamins B6 or B12, hemolysis, certain cancers. High values may mean living at high altitudes, congenital heard disease, cor pulmonale, pulmonary fibrosis, dehydration, smoking, COPD, testosterone or anabolic steroid use.

Folate (folic acid)

Normal 3.1-17.5 ng/ml
Borderline deficient 2.2-3.0 ng/ml
Deficient < 2 ng / ml
Excessive above 17.5 ng/ml

Water soluble vitamin involved with amino acid metabolism, may presage loss of red blood cells. LOW values may mean inability to process B12 exhaustion, muscle weakness, vision disturbances, neurological and psychiatric disturbances including depression and confusion. HIGH values have not been found to be associated with morbidities.

Hematocrit (adult)

Male 37.0-49.0
Female 36.0-46.0

% of Red Blood Cells present in total blood. Low values may mean anemia, blood loss, bone marrow disease hemolysis, certain cancers, deficiencies in iron, folate, B6 or b12, or cirrhosis. HIGH values may mean dehydration, polycythemia, testosterone or anabolic steroid use, sleep apnea, COPD, or living at high latitudes.

Hemoglobin (adult)

Male 13.0-18.0 g/dl
Female 12.0-16.0 g/dl

Oxygen-carrying compound of blood. Numerical value of hemoglobin present in Red Blood Cells. LOW values may mean anemia, blood loss or deficiencies in iron, folate, B6 or B12. HIGH values may mean sickle cell anemia, Thalassemia, a transfusion reaction, hemolysis dehydration, polycythemia, anabolic steroid or testosterone use, or living in a high altitude.

Iron

30-160 g/dl

Constituent of hemoglobin (transport of oxygen in blood) and enzymes involved in energy metabolism. LOW values may mean iron deficiency anemia, chronic blood loss, anemia due to infection or chronic illness, Nephrosis, hypothyroid, frequent blood donations, or menstruation in women. HIGH values may mean hemolytic anemia, hepatitis, acute iron toxicity, thalassemia, hemochromatosis

Leukocyte count (WBC)

4.5-11.0X103/mm3

Ferritin should also be measured in those undergoing phlebotomies or blood donation to ensure it is not low. LOW values may mean bone marrow failure, presence of toxins, autoimmune disease, aplastic anemia, liver or spleen disease, or radiation exposure. HIGH values may mean bacterial, viral protozoal or parasitic illnesses, inflammatory illnesses, leukemia, severe emotional or physical stress, tissue damage.

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)

25.0-35.0 pg/cell

Value is calculated from hemoglobin and erythrocyte count. formula is MCH= Erc÷Hb LOW volume may mean microcytic or normal anemia, iron deficiency HIGH values may macrocytic anemia, hereditary spherocytosis

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

31.0-37.0 g/dl

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration is calculated from Hb and hematocrit (Hct)
formula is MCHC= Hct÷Hb LOW volume may mean hypochromic anemia, Iron deficiency Thalassemia HIGH values may mean hereditary spherocytosis

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (adult)

Male 78-100 m3
Female 78-102 m3

Mean cell volume may not be reliable when a large number of abnormal erythrocytes or a dimorphic population of erythrocytes is present. It may also be calculated from the hematocrit and erythrocyte count formula is MCV= Erc÷Hct LOW values may mean microcytic anemia, Iron deficiency, thalassemia. HIGH Values may mean macrocytic anemia, folic acid or B12 deficiencies, alcoholism hereditary spherocytosis

Platelet count

150-350X103/mm3

Helps mediate the blood clotting that prevents loss of blood after injury. LOW values may mean chemotherapy, hemolytic anemia, hypersplenism, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, B12 or folate deficiency, leukemia, prosthetic heart valves, sequelae of massive blood transfusion, disseminated intravascular coagulation. HIGH values may mean post-splenectomy syndrome, primary thrombocytosis, certain malignancies, early chronic myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia, rheumatoid arthritis

Mean platelet volume

6.4-11.0 m3

Mean platelet volume is a measurement of the average size of platelets found in blood and is typically included in blood tests as part of the CBC LOW MPV values may mean platelets are destroyed, usually by antibodies, an infection, or toxins. HIGH MPV values may mean a genetic mutation or chronic myelogenous leukemia