The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood. The test is usually used to test for diabetes, insulin resistance, impaired beta cell function, and sometimes reactive hypoglycemia and acromegaly, or rarer disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. In the most commonly performed version of the test, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a standard dose of glucose is ingested by mouth and blood levels are checked two hours later.
Renin is also called angiotensinogenase; it’s an enzyme produced by the kidneys to control aldosterone production. It’s also essential in the renin–angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) which maintains your body’s fluid balance and blood pressure. Aldosterone is the primary of several endogenous members of the class of mineralocorticoids in humans. Aldosterone tends to promote Na+ and water retention, and lower plasma K+ concentration.
The test works by measuring the hemoglobin A1c level. Hemoglobin is stored in the red blood cells. When glucose levels are high, the sugar starts to combine with the hemoglobin. It takes the body 8 to 12 weeks to bring hemoglobin A1c levels back to normal. Therefore, if hemoglobin A1c levels are high, that means that there has been a high level of glucose in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months.
For good health, the body must be able to keep insulin and glucose levels in balance. With too little insulin, blood sugar remains higher than normal (a condition known as hyperglycemia) and cells can't get the energy they need. With too much insulin, blood sugar decreases (hypoglycemia), causing symptoms such as sweating, trembling, lightheadedness, and in extreme cases, shock. The most common cause of abnormal fluctuations in blood sugar is diabetes.
The Urinalysis test panel screens for a variety of conditions including urinary bladder disease, kidney disease and diabetes. Tests included: Color, Appearance, Specific gravity, pH, Protein, Glucose, Occult blood, Ketones, Leukocyte esterase, Nitrite, Bilirubin, Urobilinogen, and Microscopic examination of urine sediment