Estrone

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estrone
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Estrone (E1) is one of the three estrogens, which also includes estriol and estradiol. Estrone is the least abundant of the three and is relevant to health and disease because it is considered the stronger acting estrogen.

What is Estrone?

There are three major estrogens that are produced in women, which are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). For women who are in their reproductive years, estradiol is the most active type of estrogen and has the highest levels. The predominant hormones change during pregnancy when estriol levels are higher and during menopause when estrone is the only estrogen that continues to be produced.

Estrone is found in increased amounts in postmenopausal women. Because of that and its connection to an increased risk of cancer it is not included as part of estrogen replacement therapy. Taking estradiol orally can lead to increased levels of estrone as it is metabolized by the liver. Increased levels of estrone in the body are avoided by the use of non-oral methods of estradiol delivery like creams and gels.

Estrone, as well as the other estrogens, are synthesized from cholesterol and secreted mainly from the ovaries, though it can also be formed from adrenal androgens in adipose tissue. Relative to estradiol, both estrone and estriol have far weaker activity as estrogens. 

Estrone, a synthetically prepared or naturally occurring steroidal estrogen obtained from pregnant equine urine, is the primary circulating estrogen after menopause. Estrone is naturally derived from the peripheral conversion of androstenedione by an aromatase enzyme found in adipose tissues and is converted to estradiol in peripheral tissues. The estrogenic potency of estrone is one third that of estradiol. Estropipate is piperazine-stabilized estrone sulfate. Estrone, and estropipate are used to treat abnormalities related to gonadotropin hormone dysfunction, vasomotor symptoms, atrophic vaginitis, and vulvar atrophy associated with menopause, and for the prevention of osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency.

If you are taking estrogen replacement therapy, it is important to follow the balance of the three main estrogens in your body. Imbalances in the relationship between estrone and the other two major estrogens are thought to increase the risk for many age-related diseases.

NOTE: If you are taking biotin, please stop it 72 hours before the blood draw since it may interfere with hormone blood tests.

Estrone at a Glance - Everything You Need to Know

Estrogen is the main female hormone, but it is present in both women and men. Elevated levels can cause a number of symptoms and increase the risk of developing certain conditions, such as breast and uterine cancer.

Women tend to have higher estrogen levels, while men have more testosterone, which is the main male hormone. In women, estrogen plays a role in the menstrual cycle and the reproductive system. In men, estrogen is important for sexual function.

In both genders, high estrogen levels can affect overall health, development,  and sexual function.

There are three forms of estrogen in the bloodstream:

  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Estriol (E3)
  • Estrone (E1)

Measurements are expressed in picograms per milliliter (pg/ml).

The purpose of this article is to raise attention to one of the three estrogens, and that is estrone. Not as active as the other two in the first part of a woman's life, it becomes predominant as menopause gets installed.

At the end of the article, we will know what estrone is, why it is important when to get tested, and what certain values can indicate.

Estrone as part of Estrogens - Everything You Should Know

There are three major estrogens that are produced in women, which are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). For women who are in their reproductive years, estradiol is the most active type of estrogen and has the highest levels. The predominant hormones change during pregnancy when estriol levels are higher and during menopause when estrone is the only estrogen that continues to be produced.

Estrone is found in increased amounts in postmenopausal women. Because of that and its connection to an increased risk of cancer it is not included as part of estrogen replacement therapy. Taking estradiol orally can lead to increased levels of estrone as it is metabolized by the liver. Increased levels of estrone in the body are avoided by the use of non-oral methods of estradiol delivery like creams and gels.

Estrone, as well as the other estrogens, are synthesized from cholesterol and secreted mainly from the ovaries, though it can also be formed from adrenal androgens in adipose tissue. Relative to estradiol, both estrone and estriol have far weaker activity as estrogens. 

Estrone, a synthetically prepared or naturally occurring steroidal estrogen obtained from pregnant equine urine, is the primary circulating estrogen after menopause. Estrone is naturally derived from the peripheral conversion of androstenedione by an aromatase enzyme found in adipose tissues and is converted to estradiol in peripheral tissues. The estrogenic potency of estrone is one third that of estradiol. Estropipate is piperazine-stabilized estrone sulfate. Estrone, and estropipate are used to treat abnormalities related to gonadotropin hormone dysfunction, vasomotor symptoms, atrophic vaginitis, and vulvar atrophy associated with menopause, and for the prevention of osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency.

If you are taking estrogen replacement therapy, it is important to follow the balance of the three main estrogens in your body. Imbalances in the relationship between estrone and the other two major estrogens are thought to increase the risk for many age-related diseases.

Estrogens are, along with progestins, ovarian hormones. These are female sex hormones (steroids) that have cholesterol as a precursor, and are present in the body in three forms: estradiol, estrone, estriol.

In addition to ovarian synthesis, estrogen is also formed in small amounts in the adrenal glands, testicles, and other tissues such as the liver, skin.

Estrone is mostly produced by the peripheral aromatization of androstenedione (especially in the adrenal cortex). Estrone and estradiol are reversibly converted to each other by reductase.

After synthesis, hormones are released into the bloodstream. No forms of storage are known.

After menopause, estrone is the main circulating estrogen. Estrogen catabolism occurs predominantly in the liver, and the major catabolite is estriol, which is eliminated after conjugation by bile, and feces.

Ovarian hormones, like other steroid hormones, interact with intracellular receptors and cause the transcription of specific genes. They control the development of the female reproductive system, the appearance, and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, regulate the ovarian cycle, fertilization, pregnancy, birth, and lactation.

Estrogen and progesterone act either synergistically or antagonistically. The synthesis and secretion of ovarian hormones are regulated by pituitary gonadotropins, LH and FSH, GnRH. LH stimulates the production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovaries and controls the ovarian cycle. FSH stimulates estrogen secretion and the development of ovarian follicles.

What are the Main Functions of Estrone?

Estrogen and thus estrone are the most important female hormones. The main function of estrone before menopause is to promote the maturation of an egg that is capable of fertilization.

Estrogen stimulates endometrial growth in the so-called proliferation phase of the first half of the cycle. This phase of proliferation begins immediately after menstruation and ends with ovulation.

Hormones ensure good blood flow to the mucous membrane and also signal to the pituitary gland that the egg cell is ready to explode. The pituitary gland then produces luteinizing hormone (LH). Stimulated by the increase in LH, ovulation is triggered.

Therefore, estrone is indirectly involved in ovulation. However, estrone does not only affect the ovary. Estrogen receptors are located on various organs, such as the female breast or uterus.

From there, the hormones are channeled directly into the cell nucleus and thus influence the activity of the cells. They stimulate the growth of female reproductive organs. In bone, estrogen has a protective effect.

Thus, too low a level of estrogen can lead to bone loss. Hormones also have a stimulating effect on the immune system. It is interesting to note that estrogens in the brain increase hearing sensitivity. When estrogen levels are low, hearing loss decreases.

In addition, estrogen, and therefore estrone, is important for storing sounds and speech in memory.

Why Should a Woman Test for Estrone?

This test can help your doctor identify problems that already exist or assess the risk of any disease related to estrone levels. Therefore, this test is often required of women to:

  • Confirmation of the diagnosis of early or delayed puberty;
  • To assess the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women;
  • Evaluate doses during hormone replacement therapy;
  • Monitoring of anti-estrogen treatment in cancer cases, for example;
  • Assess the functioning of the ovaries in the case of assisted reproduction.
  • If symptoms of high levels appear

Why Should a Man Test for Estrone?

Estrone examination may be ordered in men to assess feminization traits, such as

  • Breast augmentation, known as gynecomastia
  • To confirm the diagnosis of estrogen-producing cancer.

When Should You Take the Test?

The doctor may decide to recommend you to order an estrone test in case of infertility issues or menopause symptoms. The most common test requires a blood sample. There is no required preparation for this, but if you are taking any medication as a hormonal substitute or oral contraceptive you may consult your doctor before testing.

Estrogens are also released at a specific rate. At the beginning of the cycle, the ovaries produce quite a bit of estrone, while shortly before ovulation, a lot of estrone is produced. Normal estrone values ​​depend on the cycle, your doctor will interpret the result reported to three stages:

  • Follicular phase, meaning up to ovulation and during a woman's menstruation 37-138/mL
  • Ovulatory phase 60-229 pg/mL
  • The luteal phase, two weeks before the next period 50 -114 pg/mL

On the other side, postmenopausal women normally have their values between 14-103 pg/mL while pregnant women can get their levels up to 11.500 pg/mL.

For men though, normal values are considered between 10-60 pg/mL

 

What are the Optimal Levels of Estrone?

Estrogens belong to the class of steroid hormones and are formed in the ovaries and adrenal cortex. A special feature of estrone is that it can also be obtained in the subcutaneous adipose tissue.

There, a male hormone (androstenedione) is converted to the female sex hormone estrone by a chemical conversion process. This plays a particularly important role in the post-menopausal period.

In postmenopausal women, 95% of estrone is derived from the hormones DHEA and androstenedione, which are produced in the adrenal and ovarian cortex. This is also the reason why the fat content of the abdomen increases in women after menopause.

This fatty tissue is needed for the production of estrone. Estrone production and release are controlled by the anterior pituitary gland. The pituitary gland produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

FSH is then transported through the bloodstream to the ovaries, where it stimulates estrogen production. If estrogen levels are sufficient, FSH production in the pituitary gland is reduced again.

What are the Symptoms that may Indicate High Levels of Estrone?

  • Gaining weight especially on the abdomen and around the waist
  • Craving for sugar and other processed carbohydrates
  • Tiredness during the day
  • Difficulty in waking up in the morning
  • More prone for emotional reactions, crying or weeping
  • Increased bleeding levels and clotting

What Causes an Increase in Estrone Levels?

Some of the most recurrent causes are:

Estrogen medication- usually prescribed for women in their postmenstrual phase to ameliorate symptoms like sweating or flushes.

Age- As a woman gets older, the estrogen levels are decreasing. However in the combination with estrogen medication, the estrone increases. This may be explained by the fact that older women may not eliminate the estrone at the same pace as younger ones.

Liver disorders - Diseases such as cirrhosis may increase the estrone levels

Obesity-  Obese patients have higher estrone levels because they have more fatty tissue. High estrone levels stimulate the pituitary gland to produce LH. However, estrogen levels do not drop again as in a normal cycle, but remain high. LH levels remain as high.

On the other hand, the pituitary gland releases less FSH. As a result, ovulation no longer occurs or occurs only rarely. Women with PCO and women who are very overweight therefore cannot get pregnant or just with great difficulty.

Thyroid issues- Both for men and for women, hyperthyroidism may increase the estrone levels.

Ovarian Cancer- Estrone levels are usually linked with cancer cell growth. If estrone levels are not moderated through medication and lifestyle changes, the risk for ovarian cancer may increase.

How Can You Lower Estrone Levels?

A healthy lifestyle can mean fewer hormonal imbalances. A healthy diet, free of genetically modified foods and rich in fresh fruits and vegetables along with regular exercise can be helpful in maintaining not only your hormonal and reproductive health, but also your overall health. You can start by:

  • Losing weight and exercise
  • Making dietary changes, including more fibers and anti-estrogenic foods in the daily diet such as: carrots, celery, broccoli, mushrooms, etc. Also green tea is known for reducing the estrone levels.

Order Your Estrone Test Now

As we get older, prevention becomes more important than anything. Keep your hormones balanced and enjoy yourselves healthy for longer. For estrone test and many others you can go to DiscountedLabs.com and order your test through an easy process.

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  1. Go to the "Find a Location" page to find the closest lab location. No need to make an appointment since walk-ins are welcomed. Once you have identified your closest location, go to step 2.

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  3. If you have a discount coupon code, add it to your cart.

  4. A $8 lab processing fee will be added to your total.

  5. Pay using a credit card.

  6. You will receive an order confirmation and instructions email on how to download your lab request.

  7. Print lab request form that you downloaded.

  8. Take that form to the closest location. Get your blood drawn.

  9. You will receive an email when the results are ready for you to download.

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