Thyroid Antibody Panel
These two tests measure antithyroglobulin antibodies and Anti-TPO antibodies that are commonly present in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves disease and other thyroid-related conditions. Antibodies against the protein thyroglobulin can result in the destruction of thyroid cells. TPO antibodies are created when the immune system of a person targets by pure error elements of the thyroid gland or protein, leading to chronic thyroid inflammation, tissue damage, and damage to the thyroid function. Leaving this untreated may cause severe health issues.
This thyroid antibody panel includes:
- Thyroglobulin Antibody
- Thyroid Peroxide Antibody (Anti-TPO)
Thyroglobulin Antibody Panel – Everything You Need to Know
Before getting deeper into the subject, you may want to have some background information about thyroid, antibodies, hormones, and how all these affect you.
The thyroid can be defined as a small gland, often compared with a butterfly in terms of shape. It lays at the base of your throat and is responsible for producing hormones that serve several processes in our bodies.
It is involved in the process of regulating your weight, controls body temperature and mood, and plays a role as well in muscle strength.
The thyroid uses thyroglobulin in its releasing hormones process to do these functions. If you have an autoimmune disorder, thyroglobulin production may be disrupted by the production of thyroglobulin antibodies.
We know that our immune system is something that we should nurture and care for most as it helps us stay healthy and happy. What you may don't know is that the immune system makes some proteins called antibodies. Antibodies have the role of fighting bacteria or viruses.
The overall role of the antibodies is to protect our organism. However, there are cases when they also attack good cells produced by your body, organs, and tissues. This event is called an autoimmune response.
TPO antibodies are created when the immune system of a person targets by pure error elements of the thyroid gland or protein, leading to chronic thyroid inflammation, tissue damage, and damage to the thyroid function. Leaving this untreated may cause severe health issues. The determination of TPO antibody levels is the most sensitive test for detecting autoimmune thyroid disease (eg, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, idiopathic myxedema, and Graves disease) and detectable concentrations of anti-TPO antibodies are observed in most patients with these disorders. The highest TPO antibody levels are observed in patients suffering from Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this disease, the prevalence of TPO antibodies is about 90% of cases, confirming the autoimmune origin of the disease. These autoantibodies also frequently occur (60%–80%) in the course of Graves disease.
Thyroid antibodies are different in terms of their manner of action. While some may lead to thyroid tissue destruction, others influence an increase of a specific thyroid hormone. The most common types of antibodies tested are TPO, TG, along side with TSH.
This article will have as a debated subject the thyroglobulin antibodies. You will learn what this is, how it works, and what diseases are associated with it.
What is the Purpose of a Thyroglobulin Antibody Panel?
As the same for any test, before ordering you, you should listen to your symptoms and even more to your healthcare provider. It is also important to inform your doctor if anyone from your family suffers from an autoimmune disease.
General symptoms you may encounter which are associated with thyroglobulin antibodies are:
- An increase in your weight that cannot be explained
- Skin and hair dryness
- Goiter development
- Regular constipation
The test panel is usually performed to:
- Detect Hashimoto's or Graves` disorders and identify what thyroid function is damaged
- Monitor progress in treatments for the issues found
- Monitor patients with hypothyroidism and predict its course
- Evaluate and supervise a pregnancy in case the mother suffers from any thyroid affection (during the pregnancy, these disorders may worsen)
- Follow-up for persons diagnosed and treated in the past for thyroid cancer
- Verify suspicion of autoimmune thyroiditis with negative thyroid-specific anti Peroxidase
In the United States, the most common thyroid disorder is Hashimoto's thyroiditis, affecting over 14 million citizens.
Moreover, Graves and Hashimoto disorders are known to influence other issues such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. This happens because of the interference of the immune system with the thyroid gland, affecting its course.
What Should You Know Before Doing the Thyroglobulin Antibody Panel?
The most important aspect would be for you to discuss with your healthcare provider about the medication and supplements you take.
Some of them may interfere with the components of certain medications and lead to inconclusive results. One example is the Biotin supplement; you may need to stop administration before the test.
Regarding the test in itself, it can be done in any lab. Some of them offer packages in which this test is included alongside other hormone tests usually required for a more specific diagnosis.
What May the Results Indicate?
For this test, the best outcome is to have a negative result which means there were no antithyroglobulin antibodies detected in your blood.
In case the result of the test turned positive, with small amounts of antibodies found, then one of the following disorders may be the cause:
- Biermer anemia (due to a deficit of vitamin B12) is also known as pernicious anemia or Addison-Biermer anemia
- Type 1 Diabetes
- Rheumatoid arthritis or scleroderma
- A type of thyroid cancer
In case the result of the test turned positive, with high amounts of antibodies found, then one of the following disorders may be the cause:
- Graves disease
- Hashimoto thyroiditis
Please talk to your doctor to discuss your thyroid antibody results for best course of action.
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