The comprehensive metabolic panel, or chemical screening, (CMP) is a panel of 14 blood tests which serves as an initial medical screening tool to review overall health. The CMP functions as a check for kidney function, liver function, and electrolyte and fluid balance. These are the tests included:
1. Sodium (Na)
2. Potassium (K)
3. Chloride (C)
4. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
5. Albumin (Alb)
6. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
7. Bilirubin (Bil) Total
8. Aspartate Transaminase (AST)
9. Alanine Transaminase (ALT)
10. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
11. Total Protein
12. Calcium (Ca)
13. Creatinine (Cr) with calculated eGFR
Liver Function Tests
Liver function tests, also known as the hepatic panel, are laboratory tests that help measure how well the liver is working. The liver carries out many vital bodily functions; when it is not working properly, levels of various enzymes, proteins, and other substances in the blood may rise or fall. Elevated liver enzyme levels may be a sign of liver damage caused by factors such as viral hepatitis, heavy alcohol consumption, or drug toxicity.
Alanine transaminase (ALT): formerly called SGPT, ALT is an enzyme normally present in liver cells. When these cells are damaged, ALT is released into the bloodstream. A normal ALT level for adult men is 0-50 International Units per liter (IU/L); levels are somewhat lower in women. While mild elevations are common (specially in people who exercise), an ALT level more than 2.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) is cause for concern. In general, upward or downward trends in ALT are more informative than a single measurement.
Aspartate transaminase (AST): formerly called SGOT, AST is another liver enzyme that may spill into the blood when liver cells are damaged. AST levels may also be elevated in people with muscle damage. A normal AST level for adult men is 0-45 IU/L.
Bilirubin: bilirubin is a pigment released when red blood cells are broken down. A normal bilirubin level is 0.1-1.5 mg/dL. An elevated level (hyperbilirubinemia) may indicate liver damage, impaired bile flow, or excessive red blood cell destruction. High bilirubin levels can lead to jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes).
Alkaline phosphatase (AP): elevated AP levels may signal obstructed bile flow or bone destruction. A normal level is 35-115 IU/L.
Kidney Function Tests
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): nitrogen is a metabolic waste product that is normally filtered out by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. A normal BUN is 8-20 mg/dL. Elevations may indicate kidney dysfunction, high protein intake or a body fluid imbalance (e.g., dehydration).
Creatinine: this waste product of protein metabolism is also normally excreted by the kidneys. A normal blood creatinine level is 0.6-1.5 mg/dL. Elevated creatinine levels may indicate kidney damage. Creatinine is used in calculating creatinine clearance (creatinine clearance below 60 may indicate impaired kidney function).
To learn more about how to interpret your CMP: Click Here
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