CMP - Comprehensive Metabolic Panel


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Includes liver and kidney function, glucose and electrolytes

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a blood test that measures several substances in your blood, including electrolytes, proteins, glucose, and liver and kidney function markers. It is often used to help diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, and liver disease. The test is usually done as part of a routine health evaluation or to check for potential health conditions. The results of the CMP are usually reported as a series of numbers, with a reference range indicating the normal values for each substance measured. Abnormal CMP test results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed, such as developing or active liver or kidney disease, hypertension, or diabetes. It is important to note that the interpretation of a CMP test may vary depending on the individual's medical history and other factors. A healthcare provider should be consulted to interpret the test results correctly. Tests included: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) - It measures 14 components: blood sugar (glucose), calcium, total protein, liver enzymes, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, albumin, carbon dioxide, and key electrolytes, and can detect any abnormal results that may indicate underlying health issues, including blood sugar levels.

  • Glucose
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Chloride
  • Carbon Dioxide
  •  Calcium
  •  Protein
  • Albumin
  • Alanine transaminase (ALT)
  • Aspartate transaminase (AST)
  • Bilirubin
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  •  Creatinine
  • eGFR

The comp metabolic panel or CMP panel consists of 14 blood tests that are an initial medical screening tool to review overall health. The CMP blood test panel checks for kidney function, liver function, and electrolyte and fluid balance. FASTING IS REQUIRED. These are the tests included:

CMP Discount Labs

1.     Sodium (Na)

Sodium is one of the body's principal minerals, regulated by the kidneys. It plays a vital role in maintaining water balance in your body. Vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive perspiration are all potential causes of low sodium levels. Dehydration, an excessive salt intake in your diet, or certain diseases can all contribute to a high level. Numerous drugs, including diuretics, certain blood pressure medications, and steroids, may alter the sodium level.

2.     Potassium (K)

Potassium is one of the body's principal minerals, primarily inside cells. It helps maintain water balance and the proper function of nerves and muscles. Your healthcare provider should assess any low or high levels in the blood because they are of critical importance. This is especially important if you are taking a diuretic or heart medication. A high level may indicate kidney or liver disease, too much medication, or bodily injury, such as a burn. A low potassium level can develop rapidly, most frequently as a side effect of drugs that cause increased urination.

3.     Chloride (C)

Chloride is one of the body's minerals involved with water balance. Most body chloride comes from salt in the diet. A high chloride level may mean severe dehydration, certain kidney disorders, or hyperventilation. A low chloride level may result from excessive vomiting, diarrhea, severe burns, excessive sweating, or kidney failure. Borderline low or high levels of chloride have very little significance, but can indicate potential issues such as dehydration, kidney disease, or acidosis (having too much acid in the blood).

4.     Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

In the body, most of the carbon dioxide (CO2) is in the form of a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3). Therefore, the CO2 blood test measures your blood bicarbonate level. Changes in your CO2 level may suggest that you lose or retain fluid, which causes an imbalance in your body's electrolytes. Kidney and lung function have an impact on CO2 levels in the blood. The kidneys are mainly responsible for maintaining normal bicarbonate levels. The CO2 level is interpreted with other results to aid in medical diagnoses.

5.     Albumin (Alb)

Albumin is the most significant portion of total blood protein. Modest decreases in albumin may be seen in people with low thyroid gland function and protein-losing conditions. Decreased blood albumin may indicate many disorders, including poor nutrition and advanced liver disease.

6.     Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)

Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found primarily in bone and the liver. Gallstones may be the cause of a blocked bile duct, which frequently results in an increase in it. Elevated levels may indicate the presence of bone or liver disorders.

7.     Bilirubin (Bil) Total

Bilirubin is the primary pigment in bile and a significant product of normal red cell breakdown. It helps evaluate liver function and various anemias, as well as jaundice and yellowing of the skin.

8.     Aspartate Transaminase (AST)

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme in the liver and cardiac and skeletal muscle. AST may rise in liver, heart, and muscle disorders. It can also increase following strenuous, prolonged exercise.

9.  Transaminase (ALT)

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme produced primarily in the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle. ALT rises in cases of liver disease. ALT is present in the liver in a higher concentration than AST and is more specific for differentiating liver injury from muscle damage.

10. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

Urea, measured as blood urea nitrogen (BUN), is a waste product derived from the natural breakdown of protein in the liver. Urea is excreted in the urine after blood is filtered through the kidneys. The urea nitrogen level reflects protein metabolism and the kidneys' effectiveness in purifying blood.

The BUN/creatinine ratio is calculated by dividing the urea nitrogen result by the creatinine result. This ratio can help determine whether elevated urea nitrogen is due to impaired kidney function or other factors such as dehydration, urinary blockage, or excessive blood loss.

Just so you know, if BUN and creatinine results are within the normal reference range, the BUN/creatinine ratio will not be reported (not applicable). Clinical Significance: The BUN/creatinine ratio is helpful in the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic renal disease.

11. Total Protein

12. Calcium (Ca)

Calcium is one of the most critical elements in the body. It is essential for maintaining and repairing bones and teeth, heart function, muscle function, and blood clotting. Ninety-nine percent of the calcium in your body is contained in your bones, and only one percent is in the blood. Although most of the calcium in the body is in the bones, the body regulates blood calcium levels very tightly since its functions are essential to health and performance.

13. Creatinine (Cr) with calculated eGFR

Creatinine is derived from muscles and released into the blood. The kidneys remove it from the body. When the creatinine level is elevated, a decrease in kidney function is suggested. For patients 50 years of age and older who identify as African-American, the upper reference range for creatinine is approximately 10-15% higher.

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) is a test for kidney damage. eGFR is calculated using your serum creatinine result, age, and gender. Creatinine is not sensitive to early renal impairment since it varies with age, gender, and ethnic background. If you are African American, your eGFR is estimated differently. Since race is not reported in this screening, you will need to use the written result associated with your race. To get an African American-specific result, you can multiply this result by 1.21 to get your true eGFR. The same reference ranges will apply.

14. Glucose

Glucose (“blood sugar”) is the chief energy source for all cells in the body. Your pancreas produces hormones, including insulin, that control glucose levels. A glucose level outside the optimal range could signify that the body is not correctly creating or using insulin. These conditions are hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), prediabetes (elevated blood sugar), and diabetes (high blood sugar). For the most accurate result, you should fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for at least 8 hours before your screening. If you were not fasting at the time of your screening, you should interpret your result against an optimal range of less than 140 mg/dL.

When the doctor looks at your report of the CMP blood test panel, he organizes it in his mind according to body systems or possible diseases. The sodium, potassium, chloride, and total carbon dioxide measure the salt and acid-base balance of the body. The glucose level is how we diagnose diabetes. The BUN, Creatinine, and BUN-to-creatinine ratio tell us how the kidneys function and can give us an idea about water balance and possible heart function. Calcium and phosphorus provide information on a possible endocrine disorder called hyperparathyroidism and can give information on possible bone disease and malabsorption. The total amount of protein, including albumin and globulin, can point to a liver problem, a kidney problem, or an immune disorder, with low levels indicating potential issues. Total direct bilirubin can be abnormal in liver disease and some blood diseases. The alkaline phosphatase, AST, and ALT can be irregular in liver disease, with low levels indicating potential issues.


Now that you know what a CMP panel contains, let’s find answers to some of your questions.

1. How Can I Get the CMP Panel Test?

The test is done using a single blood sample. You go to a clinic and draw blood, which will be analyzed in a medical laboratory. The doctors will perform the tests above to determine the levels of each substance in your bloodstream. You get the results back in a few business days, and you can compare them against standard reference values. The blood sample is collected using a small needle, usually in your arm, as part of the comprehensive metabolic panel procedure, through a process known as a blood draw, which carries very little risk, and the whole process takes less than 5 minutes.

2. Is the Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Test painful?

In most cases, it's not, but it depends on whether you have a fear of needles or not. Today's doctors are very efficient at drawing blood, so you might not even feel the sting when the needle enters your vein.

3. What If Some Variables or Enzymes Are Out of Normal Ranges?

Once the results are back, and some substances are off the charts, you can go to your healthcare provider for recommendations. If you have high glucose levels, your doctor might recommend starting an exercise regimen, which can increase insulin sensitivity and prevent diabetes.

You might need to eat more dairy products if your calcium levels are low. Avoid salty foods if your sodium levels are high. These recommendations are based on the specific results of each, so there’s no one-size-fits-all here—more information about what to do when you have low or high blood level values.

4. Do I Need to Fast Before Doing the CMP Test?

Yes, fasting is mandatory for glucose level testing. Before doing this test, you should avoid eating or drinking anything other than water for 10–12 hours. 

5. Why Should I Do This Test?

It’s essential to do the test to get a broad overview of the electrolytes and enzymes in your body. If some substances are not in the normal ranges of the comprehensive metabolic panel, you can take action and prevent more severe health complications. Plus, the test is affordable, quick, and easy to do, so why not take advantage of it?

6. How Can I Read and Interpret My Results?

The comprehensive metabolic panel normal ranges are published online, and you can find them with a simple Google search. You can also ask your doctor to interpret the results for you, as well as check out this engaging CMP guide on reading your COMP metabolic panel.

Ready to Take the Test?

The CMP comprehensive metabolic panel provides one of the best ways to take control of your health. You can order the CMP test online from and find out how healthy you are in just a few business days, so why not try it?


  1. Go to the "Find a Location" page to find the closest lab location. No need to make an appointment since walk-ins are welcomed. Once you have identified your closest location, go to step 2.

  2. Go to "Choose a Test" and add your selection (s) in the shopping cart. If you prefer to save money on bundled tests, we have created "Lab Test Panels" that can help you decide what to order.

  3. If you have a discount coupon code, add it to your cart.

  4. A $8 lab processing fee will be added to your total.

  5. Pay using a credit card.

  6. You will receive an order confirmation and instructions email on how to download your lab request.

  7. Print lab request form that you downloaded.

  8. Take that form to the closest location. Get your blood drawn.

  9. You will receive an email when the results are ready for you to download.

    Note: You cannot place an order under someone else's profile. The profile person's name will appear on the lab order form.


    If you have further questions, please email [email protected].

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